Complexity of Probing :: Lower Bound of 3n-3 ::

#### Data Structures

This proof requires the definition of a few data structures.

 P The set P is the set of the current probe outcomes. Q = (p0, ..., pk) Q is a sequence of k+1 points that represent the vertices (in clockwise order) of a closed convex region H containing the origin. This set is very similar to the 'inside' region defined previously for our shape from probing algorithms. As we will soon see, the vertices in Q may or may not be contact points resulting from probing. W[pi,pi+1] The region W[pi,pi+1] is formed by extending the edges [pi-1,pi] and [pi+1, pi+2] in the direction of the edge [pi, pi+1]. The region is either a finite triangle or an infinite trapeze. These two possibilities are shown in the following figure. Note that this region W was used extensively in the previous algorithms to select the best probe (see here). R The region R is the union of the region H (the convex hull of the points in Q) and the regions W[pi, pi+1] of each pair of points in Q. The regions W tend to be finite as the number of points in Q increases so a typical region R has the following shape:

 Lower Bound of 3n-3 Properties