David Avis          avis@cs.mcgill.ca     http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis

  • What's new in Version 7.1 
  • What's new in Version 6.2     (User's guide for V6.2 and earlier)
  • What's new in Version 6.1
  • What's new in Version 6.0

  • Introduction
  • lrs/redund: installation and usage
  • mplrs: installation and usage
  • lrsnash: installation and usage
  • File formats
  • Basic options
  • Arithmetic packages 
  • Estimation

  • redund: extreme point enumeration and eliminating redundant inequalities
  • Linear programming
  • Fourier elimination
  • Volume and triangulation
  • Voronoi Diagrams
  • Linearities
  • Timing and interrupts
  • (New)Vertex/Facet cross reference listing
  • Error messages and troubleshooting
  • Hints and comments
  • Acknowledgements and References

    What's New in Version 7.1

  • 1. All C version replaces Version 7.0 (which was a work in progress and has been removed from distribution)
    2. redund programs are replaced by an option in mplrs/lrs with parallel version now available
    3. hybrid (64bit/128bit/GMP) arithmetic implemented: speedups of roughly 3-5 times (64bit) and 2 times(128bit) over GMP arithmetic for problems using small integers.
    4. overflow checking for 64/128 bit arithmetic
    5. __int128 (gcc v.4.6.0 or later) and FLINT arithmetic now supported
    6. lrsgmp, mplrsgmp uses only GMP arithmetic, same as lrslib-062
    7. lrs/mplrs  start in 64 bit moving to 128 bit and then to gmp arithmetic as necessary
    8. single arithmetic versions  (64bit/128bit/GMP) of lrs/mplrs available for comparison purposes
    9. single arithmetic versions of lrsnash are available with overflow checking
    10. extract option in lrs (only) can be used to eliminate variables in H-representation and extract columns in a V-representation
    11. hvref program makes a cross reference list between H and V representations
    12. lponly option extended to include four different pivot rules: Dantzig, Bland, random edge and combined Dantzig/random edge
    13. Communication between mplrs and lrs is by data structures rather than temporary files
    14. plrs is no longer supported
    15. removing the -DSAFE option disables overflow checking in 64/128 bit mode and results are unpredicable if overflow occurs
    16. mplrs now prints maximum tree depth at end and supports printcobasis option in input files

    What's New in Version 6.2

    mplrs:   new command-line options, improved performance on large-output instances, volume output added

    What's New in Version 6.1

  • lrs: memory leaks fixed
  • mplrs: checkpointing after restart fixed
  • nash: new version of nash driver and new nash library, mostly by Terje Lensberg, memory leak and earlier bug in nash fixed

  • What's New in Version 6.0

  • mplrs: C wrapper prepared by Skip Jordan for lrs that allows for parallelization using the MPI library over a network of multi-core machines. It is derived from Gary Roumanis' earlier C++ wrapper plrsmplrs includes many modifications to ensure load balancing.
  • Installation and usage are described here.
  • plrs is designed for shared memory machines and should improve on lrs even on dual core machines. mplrs is designed for machines and/or networks with at least 4 processors. (plrs is discontinued from Version 6.3)
  •  Some additonal options were added to lrs in order to help with load balancing, in particular maxc

  • Introduction

    A polyhedron can be described by a list of inequalities (H-representation) or as by a list of its vertices and extreme rays (V-representation).lrs is a C program that converts a H-representation of a polyhedron to its V-representation, and vice versa.  These problems are known respectively at the vertex enumeration(VE) and convex hull(CH) problems.
    Fukuda's FAQ page   contains a more detailed introduction to the problem, along with many useful tips for the new user.

    lrs is based on the reverse search algorithm of Avis and Fukuda(1992) , modified to use lexicographic pivoting  and implemented in rational arithmetic. See Avis(1998a) for a technical description, and Avis(1998b) for some computational experience. mplrs is a parallel version of lrs based on open MPI. The input files are in Polyhedra format , developed by Fukuda and the author. The format is essentially self-dual, and the output file produced can be read in as an input file, with very minor modifications, to perform the reverse transformation. This format is compatible with that  used in Fukuda's cdd package, which performs the same transformations using a version of the double description methodcdd can also be used  in conjunction with lrs as a pre-processor for projections to subspaces, or as a post processor for computing the entire face lattice. Another program using the same file format is the primal-dual method pd, developed by Bremner, Fukuda and Marzetta .  It is essentially dual to lrs, and is very efficient for computing H-representations of simple polyhedra, and V-representations of simplicial polyhedra. It will compute the volume of a polytope given by an H-representation. Links to additional VE/CH programs is given here.

    Polyhedra handled by lrs  need not be full dimensional  and may contain input linearities and redundant columns .  lrs accepts either integer or rational input, and produces integer or rational output. All computations are done exactly using either extended precision arithmetic (GMP) or fixed long integer arithmetic with 64 or 128 bits. Since v6.3 overflow checking is performed and some variants of lrs will automatically restart when overflow is detected. Since it is a pivot based method, lrs can be very slow for degenerate inputs: i.e. H-representations of non-simple polyhedra, and V-representations of non-simplicial polyhedra. On the other hand, it does not store the vertices/ rays or facets produced, so for very large problems it may be the only method that can solve the problem.  A discussion of various vertex enumeration/convex hull methods and the types of polyhedra that cause them to behave badly is contained in Avis, Bremner and Seidel( 1997).  A more recent discussion with extensive empiral tests can be found in Avis and Jordan (2017). This paper contains a description and experimental results for mplrs. The program normaliz provides a parallel version of the double description method.

    Additional functions of mplrs/lrs include:

    Redundancy removal involves the removal of any inequalities that are not required to represent the polyhedron in an H-representation. For a V-representation it is  the problem of evaluating the extreme points and extreme rays. These problems are normally  considerably easier than the H to V and V to H transforamtions performed by lrs. In some cases, redundancy can greatly slow the processing time taken by lrs, and it is advisble to remove any redundancy from the input file using redund before applying lrs. A program lrsnash included in lrslib computes all Nash equilibria for 2-person matrix games using lrs as a subroutine.

    These programs can be distributed freely under the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE. Please read the file COPYING carefully before using.  Please inform the author of any interesting applications for which these programs were helpful.

    lrslib installation and usage (single processor mode)

    Instructions for installing mplrs, a multithreaded implementation of lrs using MPI, are here. or         % make  lrs64                (compilers without  __int128 support)
    This is a list of the 8 vertices with each co-ordinate +/- 1.  The ***** should be replaced by the actual number, 8, of vertices. Since lrs does not save the output produced, it does not know this value until the execution terminates. This output is now essentially the same as file cube.ext. To complete the test type:
                lrs                 multiple arithmetic packages starting with fixed precision 64 bit arithmetic
                lrsgmp        GMP arithmetic only

    Instructions for installing mplrs, a multithreaded implementation of lrs using MPI, are here.

     File formats

    Note for cdd users: lrs uses essentially the same file format as cdd. Files prepared for cdd should work with little or no modification. Note that  the V-representation corresponds to the "hull" option in cdd. Options specific to cdd can be left in the input files and will be ignored by lrs.  Note the input files for lrs are read in free format, after the line m n rational lrs will look for exactly m*n rationals or integers separated by white space (blank,  carriage return, tab etc.). lrs will not "drop" extra columns of input if n is less than the number of columns supplied.

    Basic options

    allbases bound  x                                    // Use with H-representation  - for lrs or nash //
    Either the maximize or minimize option should be selected. x is an integer or rational.
    For maximization (resp. minimization) the reverse search tree is truncated  whenever the current objective value is less (resp. more) than x .

    cache n debug  startingbasis endingbasis
    Print out cryptic but detailed trace, dictionaries etc. starting at #B=startingbasis and ending at #B=endingbasis. debug 0 0 gives a complete trace.
    digits n                // placed before the begin statement// dualperturb
    If lrs is executed with the maximize or minimize option, the reverse search tree is rooted at an optimum vertex for this function.
    If there are mulitiple optimum vertices, the output will often not be complete. This option gives a small perturbation to the objective to avoid this.
    A warning message is given if the starting dictionary is dual degenerate .

    estimates k extract k   i1 i2 ... ik          
    (lrs only)  New in v7.1 extract 0                        (lrs only) geometric                 // H-representation  or voronoi option only //               This indicates ray  0   r0   r 1 ...   rn-1is incident with vertex  1   v0   v 1 ...   vn-1.  For the quadrant, the output is: incidence                                         
    This option automatically switches on printcobasis , so see below for a description of this option first.
    Can be used with printcobasis n. (Ver 4.2b)

    For input H-representation, indices of all input inequalities that contain the vertex/ray that is about to be output. For a simplicial face, there is no new output, since these indices are already listed. Otherwise, the additional tight inequalities are listed after a colon. Eg:
    V#1 R#0 B#1 h=0 facets  12 14 15 16 : 9 10 11 13 I#8 det= 8
     1  0  0  0  1

    The vertex 0 0 0 1 satisfies 8 input inequalities as equations, as indicated by I#8 : those with indices 12,14,15,16 are in the cobasis, and those with indices 9, 10, 11, 13 are in the basis. For a ray:
    V#1 R#5 B#1 h=0 facets  5 9* 10 11 12 13 : 2 3 4 I#8 det= 8
     0  1  1  0  0  1  1

    Here the ray 1  1  0  0  1  1 lies on 8 inequalities, with indices 5 10 11 12 13 in basis and 2 3 4 in cobasis. The starred index 9* indicates that the ray is terminated by the input inequality 9. This inequality is in the cobasis and defines the vertex from which the ray starts.

    For input V-representation, indices of all input vertices/rays that lie on the facet that is about to be output:
    F#5 B#3 h=2 vertices/rays  7 8* 11 13 15 : 1 3 5 9 I#8 det= 16
    1 -1  0  0  0

    The facet generated by inequality x1 <= 1 contains 8 input vertices, as indicated by I#8: those with indices 7,11,13,15 are in the cobasis, and those with indices 1 3 5 9 are in the basis.The starred index 8* indicates that this vertex  is also in the cobasis, but is not contained in the facet. It arises due to the lifting operation used with input V-representations.

    The same as printcobasis. Included for compatability with cdd.
    linearity  k  i1 i2 i ... ik
    The input contains k linearities in rows i1 i2 i ... ik of the input file are equations. See Linearities.
    maxdepth k maximize  a0 a1 ... an-1                                            // H-representation  only //
    minimize   a0 a1 ... an-1                                           // H-representation  only //
    If used with lrs the starting vertex maximizes (or minimizes) the function  a0 + a1 x 1 + ... + an-1 xn-1.
    The dualperturb option may be needed to avoid dual degeneracy.
    See Nash Equilibria and  Linear Programming
    maxcobases n         //from Version 6.0 //
           After n cobases have been generated lrs terminates and returns restart data for all unexplored roots of subtrees (except for leaves which are output). These subtrees are the unexplored siblings on the path back to the root of the reverse search tree. Used by mplrs to break up large subtrees into smaller pieces.

    maxoutput n
    Limits number of output lines produced (either vertices+rays or facets) to n

    mindepth k
    nonnegative                      // This option must come before the begin statement//
                                                                                                //H-representation only //
               Bug: Can only be used if the origin is a vertex of the polyhedron 
    For problems where the input is an H-representation of the form b+Ax>=0, x>=0 (ie. all variables non-negative, all constraints inequalities) it is not necessary to give the non-negative constraints explicitly if the nonnegative option is used. This option cannot be used for V-representations, or with the linearity option (in which case the linearities will be treated as inequalities). This option may be used with redund , but the implied nonnegativity constraints are not tested themselves for redundancy. To test everything it is necessary to enter the nonnegativity constraints explicitly in the input file. (In Ver 4.1, the origin must be a vertex).

    printcobasis  k                                  

    printslack                        // Use with H-representation //

    lrs prints a list of the indices of the input inequalities that are satisfied strictly for the current vertex, ie. corresponding slack variable is positive.
    If nonnegative is set, the list will also include indices n+i for each decision variable xi which is positive.

    Used by driver fourier only.

    redund start end                      new in v7.1
    Check input line numbers from start to end and remove any redundant lines.
                redund 0 0  will check all input lines.
    See redund

    redund_list k   i1 i2 ... ik                 
    new in v7.1
    Check the k input line numbers with indices i1 i2 ... ik  from and remove any redundant lines. See redund

    restart  V# R# B# depth {facet #s or vertex/ray #s
    [integervertices n]                                                                   /* new in V 7.0 */             
    startingcobasis i1 i2 i ... in-1 truncate                                            // H-representation only //      Some corrections made in v4.3
    The reverse search tree is truncated(pruned)  whenever a new vertex is encountered. Note: This does note necessarily produce the set of all vertices adjacent to the optimum vertex in the polyhedron, but just a subset of them. See here for a description of how to use this option.
    Print slightly more detailed information about the run.
    volume                                              // V-representation  only // voronoi                                              // V-representation  only - place immediately after end statement //

    Arithmetic packages     (Major update in v.7.1)          

      lrs/mplrs use hybrid arithmetic with overflow checking, starting in 64bit fixed integers, moving to 128bit (if available) and then GMP.
      Typically inputs that can be solved in 64bits run 3-4 times faster than with GMP and inputs solvable in 128bits run twice as fast as GMP;
      Single arithmetic versions are available for comparing arithmetic packages.
      A number of arithmetic packages are supported by lrslib. A typical installation uses:

      lrslong   Fixed length long integer arithmetic. 64-bit and 128-bit(when the compiler supports it) with overflow checking
      lrsgmp   An interface to GNU MP  which must be installed first from https://gmplib.org/.

    If your C compiler does not support 128-bit integers you should install lrs with '% make lrs64' .

    Overflow checking is conservative to improve performance:
    eg. with 64 bit arithmetic, a*b triggers overflow if either a or b is at least 2^31, and a+b triggers an overflow if either a or b is at least 2^62.
    % make single

    produces the binaries :

     lrs1/lrsnash1                        fixed 64 bit, stop on overflow                           
     lrs2/lrsnash2                        fixed 128 bit, stop on overflow
     lrsgmp/lrsnashgmp      gmp extended precison arithmetic
    and if the FLINT package has been installed ( available at  http://www.flintlib.org/  )    

     lrsflint                               FLINT multiple precison arithmetic

     lrs1/lrs2 produce a restart file that can be used instead of redoing the whole run from the beginning

    If you remove the flag -DSAFE in the makefile then (mp)lrs1 and (mp)lrs2 will not  do overflow checking and will run about 10% faster.
    However, if overflow occurs the results are unpredictable: caveat emptor!

    % make singlemplrs             produces the binaries :

      mplrs1  64 bit integers with overflow checking. Terminates when overflow condition is detected.
      mplrs2 128 bit integers with overflow checking. Terminates when overflow condition is detected.
      mplrsgmp(default mplrs) use only gmp extended precison arithmetic (same as lrs in lrslib-062)

    lrslib also has support for the multi-precision FLINT package that needs to be installed from http://www.flintlib.org/    

    % make flint                          produces the binary lrsflint

    % make mplrsflint                produces the binary mplrsflint

    (mp)lrs1 runs 3-5 times faster than (mp)lrs on highly combinatorial polytopes.
    (mp)lrsflint performed similarly to (mp)lrsgmp even on combinatorial polytopes.
    Experimental results will be reported at a later date.


    % lrs mp5.ine mp5.ext

    *lrs:lrslib v.6.3 2018.4.11(64bit,lrsmp.h)
    *Input taken from file mp5.ine
    *Output sent to file mp5.ext

    *Totals: vertices=32 rays=0 bases=9041 integer_vertices=16
    *Dictionary Cache: max size= 17 misses= 0/9040   Tree Depth= 16

    In this case 64 bit arithmetic was sufficient to compute all vertices.

    % lrs mit.ine mit.ext
    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.5.1(64bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)
    *Input taken from file mit.ine
    *Output sent to file mit.ext

    *overflow possible: restarting with longer precision arithmetic from /tmp/lrs_mit.ine_restart

    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.5.1(128bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)
    *Input taken from file /tmp/lrs_mit.ine_restart
    *Output sent to file mit.ext

    *Totals: vertices=4862 rays=0 bases=1375608 integer_vertices=477
    *Dictionary Cache: max size= 50 misses= 1053/1374992   Tree Depth= 101
    *367.370u 1.819s 9616Kb 0 flts 0 swaps 0 blks-in 712 blks-out
    In this case 64-bit arithmetic triggered an overflow condition so 128-bit lrs2 was used with a restart.

    % lrs c30-15.ext c30-15.ine
    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.5.1(64bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)
    *Input taken from file c30-15.ext
    *Output sent to file c30-15.ine

    *overflow possible: restarting with longer precision arithmetic from /tmp/lrs_c30-15.ext_restart

    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.5.1(128bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)
    *Input taken from file /tmp/lrs_c30-15.ext_restart
    *Output sent to file c30-15.ine

    *overflow possible: restarting with longer precision arithmetic from /tmp/lrs_c30-15.ext_restart

    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.5.1(64bit,lrsgmp.h) gmp v.6.1
    *Input taken from file /tmp/lrs_c30-15.ext_restart
    *Output sent to file c30-15.ine

    *Totals: facets=341088 bases=319770
    *Dictionary Cache: max size= 15 misses= 0/319769   Tree Depth= 14
    *52.359u 1.046s 4320Kb 1125 flts 0 swaps 0 blks-in 0 blks-out
    In this case neither 64-bit or 128-bit precision is enough so lrsgmp was used for the computation.



    maxdepth d
    estimates k            (New in V6.0) In order to try to get a better estimate, we implemented the additional option which makes the search go deeper than maxdepth when the estimates are large.

    subtreesize n     (default is MAXD)

                If an estimate obtained for a subtree at depth d exceeds n then the estimation is continued deeper into that subtree until an estimate less than or equal to n is obtained.

               The running time of lrs is proportional to the number of bases, so an estimate of the number of bases gives an easy way to estimate the running time for solving the complete problem by lrs:
               total running time = time for estimate * estimated number of bases / tree nodes evaluated.
    seed n lrs n < filename

    mplrs: installation and usage

    C wrapper prepared by Skip Jordan for lrs that allows for parallelization using the MPI library over a network of multi-core machines. It is derived from plrs but includes many modifications to ensure load balancing. Near linear speedups up to 1200 cores have been observed.
    plrs is no longer supported.

    New in v7.1: mplrs also performs redundancy checking in parallel, see -redund option below and redund.

    Default installation (see below for more details):

    % make mplrs            (compilers with 
    __int128 support)
    % make mplrs64       (otherwise)

    As with lrs, this produces binaries mplrs using hybrid (64bit/128bit/GMP) arithmetic and mplrsgmp which uses only GMP arithmetic
    See arithmetic packages to see how to get single arithmetic versions mplrs1, mplrs2(if  __int128 supported)

    Default usage:    <number of processes> should be 4 or higher

    % mpirun -np <number of processes>  mplrs <infile> [ <outfile> ]     (See below for all mplrs options)

    Note: Remove all options after the end statement of the input file!

    Example: Input file mp5.ine is run with 8 processors. The output file mp5.mplrs is in the distribution.
    This produced 378 subtrees that were enumerated in parallel using 6 producer cores,  1 core controlling the run and 1 core collecting the output.

    mai20% mpirun -np 8 mplrs mp5.ine mp5.mplrs
    *mplrs:lrslib v.6.0 2015.7.13(lrsgmp.h)8 processes
    *Copyright (C) 1995,2015, David Avis   avis@cs.mcgill.ca
    *Input taken from mp5.ine
    *Output written to: mp5.mplrs
    *Starting depth of 2 maxcobases=50 maxdepth=0 lmin=3 lmax=3 scale=100
    *Phase 1 time: 0 seconds.
    *Total number of jobs: 378, L became empty 4 times
    *Totals: vertices=32 rays=0 bases=9041 integer-vertices=16
    *Elapsed time: 1 seconds.
    2.285u 0.137s 0:01.86 129.5%    0+0k 0+9976io 36pf+0w

    Installation instructions for mplrs.

    1. Install MPI library on all machines that will be used for a single run. We have tested mplrs with both openmpi and mpich2. Note that if you install MPI from binary packages, you will need both the library and development packages if available. Configuring MPI to run on a cluster of machines is beyond the scope of this document, however mplrs should work well on any properly-configured cluster or supercomputer.
    2. Make any path changes to the beginning of makefile as necessary.
    3. Run %make mplrs

    As with lrs, this produces binaries mplrs using hybrid (64bit/128bit/GMP) arithmetic and mplrsgmp which uses only GMP arithmetic
    4. E
    xactly the same version of mplrs must be used on each machine in the cluster, or unexpected results may occur!
    5: mplrs creates temporary files on each machine in the cluster. The default is to use /tmp. If this is not writeable the -temp option must be used, see below.

    Full set of options for mplrs
    has many options, but just using the default settings should provide good performance in general.
    The parameters -hist and -freq give interesting information about the degree of parallelization.

     mpirun -np <number of processes> mplrs <infile> <outfile> -id <initial depth> -maxc <maxcobases> -maxd <depth> -lmin <int> -lmax <int> -scale <int> -hist <file> -temp <prefix> -freq <file> -stop <stopfile> -checkp <checkpoint file> -restart <checkpoint file> -time <seconds>
     -np <number of processes>     required, should be at least 4
     -id <initial depth>                      2                      the depth of the original tree search to populate the job queue L
    -maxc <maxcobases>                50 (*scale)     a producer stops and returns all subtrees that are not leaves to L after generating  maxc nodes   
    -maxd <depth>                            0                       a producer returns all subtrees that are not leaves at depth maxd. Zero if not used
    -lmin <int>                                    3                       if job queue |L|<np*lmin then the maxd parameter is set for all producers         
    -lmax <int>                                   lmin                 if job queue |L|>np*lmax then then maxc is replaced by maxc*scale
    -scale <int>                                   100                   used by lmax
    -hist <file>                                                               store parallelization data in <file> for use by gnuplot, see below
    -temp <prefix>                          /tmp/                  store a temporary file for each process. Should be specified if /tmp not writeable
                                                                                       Using " -temp  ./ " will write temporary files to the current directory
    -freq <file>                                                              store frequency data in <file> for use by gnuplot, see below
    -stop <stopfile>                                                     terminate mplrs if a file with name <stopfile> is created in the current directory
    -checkp <checkpoint file>                                  if mplrs is terminated by -stop or -time then it can be restarted using this <checkpoint file> and -restart
    -restart <checkpoint file>                                  restart mplrs using previously created <checkpoint file>. If used with -checkp file names should be different!
    -time <seconds>                                                   terminate mplrs after <seconds> of elapsed time

    New in V6.2:
    -countonly                                                             don't output vertices/rays/facets, just count them
    -maxbuf <n>                              500                    controls maximum size of worker output buffers
                                                                                      smaller values increase "streaminess" of the output while larger values send larger blocks of output
    -stopafter <n>                                                      exit after approximately <n> cobases have been computed (no guarantee about how many vertices/rays/facets computed)

    New in V7.1:
    -redund                                                                 perform redundancy check of input file (also see redund )

    Checkpoints, restarts and abnormal termination

    mplrs has inherited restart capability from lrs, which was described in Timing and interrupts
    Details of the layout of the checkpoint file can be found here.
    Checkpointing can be very useful for long runs that use significant computational resources. If resources are needed elsewhere, or additional resources become available, it is possible to stop mplrs and use the checkpoint file to restart. The mpirun command can be modified for this restart to reflect the new resource availability. The normal way to do this by using the -checkp and either the -stop or -time options. In addition if mplrs receives a SIGTERM or SIGHUP signal, it checkpoints and terminates.  This allows users to checkpoint runs that were not started with -stop <file> or -time <seconds>.  These signals can be sent using the kill utility:

    % kill <pid>
    where <pid> is the process ID of an mplrs instance to be terminated.
    Sending the signal to any one of the mplrs instances is sufficient.

    The checkpoint is produced in the file specified by the -checkp
    argument.  If it was not specified, the checkpoint is produced in the output.
    In this case, the checkpoint file is contained between the lines
     *Checkpoint file follows this line
     *Checkpoint finished above this line .
    These two lines are not part of the checkpoint file.

    To terminate the run immediately, without a checkpoint, use
    % kill -9 <pid>

    Visualization of parallelization
    A good realtime view of an mplrs run can be obtained by using the -hist and -freq parameters and gnuplot using the plotL.gp and plotD.gp files.
    These files can be used if the parameters are set as  -hist hist -freq freq and can be obtained while mplrs is running as follows:
    %gnuplot plotL.gp
    %gv plotL.ps
    %gnuplot plotD.gp
    %gv plotD.ps
    If other files are used for -hist and -freq then plotL.gp and plotD.gp should be edited accordingly.
    The first plot has 3 graphs showing the number of processors working, the size of the job queue L, and message requests pending, all versus elapsed time on the x-axis.
    The second histogram shows the size of the subtrees explored by producers. The root of the subtree is not counted in this size. Note that a producer stops after maxc nodes are explored, but in backtracking some additional leaves may be discovered. So the size of the largest subtree maybe slightly larger than maxc.

    Details of -hist and -freq files

    mplrs periodically adds a line to the histogram file, for example
       54.118141 94 279 94 0 0 373

    This line contains the following information:
       Time since execution began in seconds (54.118141 here)
       Number of busy workers (94 here)
       Current size of job queue (279 here)
       Number of workers that may return unfinished jobs (94 here)
       Unused (0 here)
       Unused (0 here)
       Total number of jobs that have been in the job queue (373 here)
    The second and fourth entries are similar and can differ due to

    The frequency data file contains one integer per line, with each integer
    corresponding to the size of a subtree explored by a worker.

    Fourier Elimination (Due to several bug reports, this program should not be used. Caveat emptor!)

    Tallman Nkgau has contributed a driver fourier that computes the projection of a polyhedron given by its H-representation onto a selected set of coordinates. The program can be compiled by

    make fourier

    and is run by the command

    fourier file.ine [fileout]

    is a standard H-representation that does not contain linearities. If you have linearities, please replace each by two inequalities.
    Following the end statement, insert the option:

    project t  a1 ... at

    The output will be the polyhedron projected onto the coordinates a1 ... a , each of which is a unique number betwen 1 and n.

    lrsnash installation and usage (Nash equilibria for 2-person matrix games)                                          

    See:    D. Avis, G. Rosenberg, R. Savani, B. von Stengel, "Enumeration of Nash Equilibria for Two-Player Games", Economic Theory 42(2009) 9-37  pdf

    lrsnash computes all Nash equilibria (NE) for a two person noncooperative game are computed using two interleaved reverse search vertex enumeration steps.
    The input for the problem are two m by n matrices A,B of integers or rationals. The first player is the row player, the second is the column player.
    If row i and column j are played, player 1 receives Ai,j and player 2 receives Bi,j.

    Version 6.1 contains lrsnash.c and lrsnashlib.c replacing nash.c with a library version and simpler interface that does not require setupnash. Big thanks to Terje Lensberg for this.
    nashdemo.c is a very basic template for setting up games and calling the library function lrs_solve_nash(game *g).

    To compile:

    % make lrsnash

    you get binaries lrsnash, lrsnash1, lrsnash2, nashdemo and 2nash.
    The first three are variants of lrsnash that use different arithmetic packages.
    lrsnash uses gmp arithmetic and will work with any input files.
    lrsnash1 uses 64-bit arithmetic with overflow checking and is about 5-10 times faster than lrsnash for combinatorial game matrices.
    lrsnash2 uses 128-bit arithmetic where available and takes about about 50% more time than lrsnash1.

    % nashdemo                     just runs the demo, no parameters

    % lrsnash game                 finds the equlibrium for file game

     [ % lrsnash game1 game2      or    % 2nash game1 game2               finds the equilibrium for game1 and game2 in legacy nash format which is  described below ]

    The file game is in the format :
     m n
    matrix A
    matrix B

    eg. the file game is for a game with m=3 n=2:
    3 2

    0 6
    2 5
    3 3

    1 0
    0 2
    4 3

    % lrsnash game

    *Copyright (C) 1995,2015, David Avis   avis@cs.mcgill.ca
    *lrsnash:lrslib v.6.1 2015.10.27(lrsgmp.h gmp v.6.0)
    2  1/3  2/3  4
    1  2/3  1/3  0  2/3

    2  2/3  1/3  3
    1  0  1/3  2/3  8/3

    2  1  0  3
    1  0  0  1  4

    *Number of equilibria found: 3
    *Player 1: vertices=5 bases=5 pivots=8
    *Player 2: vertices=3 bases=1 pivots=8

    *lrsnash:lrslib v.6.1 2015.10.27(32bit,lrsgmp.h)

    Output interpretation:
    Each row beginning 1 is a strategy for the row player yielding a NE with each row beginning 2 listed immediately above it.
    The payoff for player 2 is the last number on the line beginning 1, and vice versa.
    Eg: first two lines of output: player 1 uses row probabilities 2/3 2/3 0 resulting in a payoff of 2/3 to player 2.
    Player 2 uses column probabilities 1/3 2/3 yielding a payoff of 4 to player 1.

    Legacy format

    % setnash game game1 game2    

    produces two H-representations, game1 and game2, one for each player.

    To get the equilibrium, run

    % lrsnash game1 game2

    If you have two or more cpus available run 2nash instead of lrsnash as the order of the input games is immaterial.
    It runs in parallel with the games in each order. (If you use lrsnash, the program usually runs faster if m is <= n , see below.)

    % 2nash game1 game2 [outputfile]

    If no output file is specified the output is placed in a file names out.

    If both matrices are nonnegative and have no zero columns, you may instead use setnash2:

    % setnash2 game game1 game2

    Now the polyhedra produced are polytopes.

    The output  of lrsnash in this case is a list of unscaled probability vectors x and y.

    % lrsnash game1 game2
    Processing legacy input files. Alternatively, you may skip
    setupnash and pass its input file to this program.

    *nash:lrslib v.6.1 2015.10.27(lrsgmp.h gmp v.6.0)
    *Copyright (C) 1995,2015, David Avis   avis@cs.mcgill.ca
    *Input taken from file game1
    *Second input taken from file game2

    ***** 4 3 rational
    2  1/12  1/6
    1  1  1/2  0

    2  2/9  1/9
    1  0  1/8  1/4

    2  1/3  0
    1  0  0  1/4

    *Number of equilibria found: 3
    *Player 1: vertices=6 bases=6 pivots=8
    *Player 2: vertices=4 bases=1 pivots=8
    *nash:lrslib v.6.1 2015.10.27(32bit,lrsgmp.h)


    To normalize, divide each vector by v = 1^T x and u=1^T y.
    u and v are the payoffs to players 1 and 2 respectively.

    If m is greater than n then lrsnash usually runs faster by transposing the players. This is achieved by running:

    % lrsnash game2 game1

    If you wish to construct the game1 and game2 files by hand, they are fragile and should be done exactly as follows:

       For player 1: eg. game1
       One linearity in the last row
       Identity matrix with additional final column 0
       Transpose of payoff matrix for player 2 with final column 1
       Last row is prob sum to one

       For player 2: eg. game2
       One linearity in the last row
       Payoff matrix for player 1 with final column 1
       Identity matrix with additional final column 0
       Last row is prob sum to one

    Corresponding to file game above we get

    *game: player 1
    linearity 1 6
    6 5 rational
    0 1 0 0 0
    0 0 1 0 0
    0 0 0 1 0
    0 -1 0 -4  1
    0 0 -2 -3  1
    -1 1 1 1 0

    *game: player 2
    linearity 1 6
    6 4 rational
    0 0 -6  1
    0 -2 -5  1
    0 -3 -3  1
    0 1 0 0
    0 0 1 0
    -1 1 1 0

      Linear Programming             


                 and one of the options maximize or minize:

    maximize a0 a1 ... an-1                                           // H-representation  only //

    minimize a0 a1 ... an-1                                             // H-representation  only //

    To print the dictionary at a few key points also include the option:


    New in V4.2. Dual variables are now printed at termination. If the linearity option is used, only a partial list of dual variables will be given.
                           Dual variable yi refers to inequality number i in the input.

    Volume and triangulation

    lrs can be used to compute the volume of a full dimensional polytope given as a V-representation. This follows from the fact that lex-postive bases form a triangulation of the facets, and that a V-representation is always lifted. See "Theoretical Description" on lrs home page for some remarks on this. The option

    volume                                                                             // V-representation only //

    will cause the volume to be computed. For input cube.ext, the output is:

    The triangulation can be output by adding also the option verbose.
    This would give the output:

    F#0 B#1 h=0 vertices/rays  4 6 7 8 I#8 det= 8
     1  1  0  0
     1  0  1  0
     1  0  0  1
    F#3 B#2 h=1 vertices/rays  4 5 6 7 I#8 det= 8
    F#3 B#3 h=2 vertices/rays  3 4 5 7 I#8 det= 8
     1 -1  0  0
    F#4 B#4 h=3 vertices/rays  2 3 4 5 I#8 det= 8
     1  0  0 -1
    F#5 B#5 h=4 vertices/rays  1 2 3 5 I#8 det= 8
    F#5 B#6 h=2 vertices/rays  2 4 5 6 I#8 det= 8
     1  0 -1  0
    *Sum of det(B)= 48
    *Volume= 8

    Each of the 6 bases corresponds to a simplex.
    The first simplex is composed of vertices 4 6 7 8, second simplex is 4 5 6 7, etc.

    If the volume option is applied to an H-representation, the results are not predictable. If the option is applied to a V-representation of  a polytope that is not full dimensional, the volume of a projected polytope is computed. The projection used is to the lexicographically smallest coordinate subspace, see Avis, Fukuda, Picozzi (2002)

    For polytopes given by a H-representation, it will first be necessary to compute the V-representation.

    Voronoi diagrams

    lrs can be used the compute the V-vertices of a Voronoi diagram of a set of data points in n-1 dimensional space. To do this we use a standard lifting procedure (see, e.g., Edelsbrunner, "Algorithms in Combinatorial Geometry," pp 296-297) . Each point is mapped to a half space tangent to the parabaloid in n dimensions, by the mapping:

    p , p , ...., p n-1     ->    (p1 +   p22 +  ...   +  pn-1 ) - 2 p1  x - 2 p x2 - .... - 2  p n-1 xn -1  + x n>= 0

    lrs is applied to the H-representation so created.  This transformation is performed automatically for a V-representation if the

    voronoi          // V-representation only - place immediately after end statement //

    option is specified.
    Note: The input file must consist entirely of data points (no rays), i.e.. there must be a one in column one of each line. The volume option should not be used, since the volume reported will not be the volume of the original V-representation.
    The output will consist of the Voronoi vertices (columns beginning with a one) and Voronoi rays (columns beginning with zero) for the Voronoi diagram defined on the data points.  If the printcobasis option is given, the n "data points" indices produced will tell which set of input data points corresponds to the given Voronoi vertex or ray. In case of degeneracies, a given Voronoi vertex may be generated by more than n of the input data points. In this case, use of the allbases option will cause all  sets of n input data points corresponding to a Voronoi vertex to be printed. For Voronoi rays, the immediately preceding  cobasis is the cobasis of the the Voronoi vertex from which the ray emanates.  The index followed by a * is the data point to drop in order to generate the ray. If the geometric option is given the correspondence between Voronoi rays and Voronoi vertices will be produced automatically.

    Example: Compute the Voronoi diagram of the planar point set (0,0), (2,1), (1,2), (0,4), (4,0), (4,4) (2,-4).
    *6 Voronoi vertices and 5 rays
    *7 input data points
    7 3 integer
    1 0 0
    1 2 1
    1 1 2
    1 0 4
    1 4 0
    1 4 4
    1 2 -4

    The output produced is

    ***** 3 rational
    V#1 R#0 B#1 h=0 data points  1 5 7 det=64
    1 2 -3/2
    V#1 R#1 B#1 h=0 data points  1 5* 7 det=64
    0 -2 -1  * 1 2 -3/2
    V#1 R#2 B#1 h=0 data points  1* 5 7 det=64
    0 2 -1  * 1 2 -3/2
    V#1 R#2 B#2 h=1 data points  1 2 5 det=16
    1 2 -3/2
    V#2 R#2 B#3 h=2 data points  1 2 3 det=12
    1 5/6 5/6
    V#3 R#2 B#4 h=3 data points  1 3 4 det=16
    1 -3/2 2
    V#3 R#3 B#4 h=3 data points  1 3* 4 det=16
    0 -1 0  * 1 -3/2 2
    V#4 R#3 B#5 h=2 data points  2 5 6 det=32
    1 15/4 2
    V#4 R#4 B#5 h=2 data points  2* 5 6 det=32
    0 1 0  * 1 15/4 2
    V#5 R#4 B#6 h=3 data points  2 3 6 det=20
    1 27/10 27/10
    V#6 R#4 B#7 h=4 data points  3 4 6 det=32
    1 2 15/4
    V#6 R#5 B#7 h=4 data points  3* 4 6 det=32
    0 0 1  * 1 2 15/4

    The output contains 6 Voronoi vertices :
    (2, -3/2), (5/6,5/6),(-3/2,2),(15/4,2), (27/10,27/10), (2,15/4).
    The Voronoi vertex (2,-3/2) appears twice in the output with data point indices 1 5 7 and 1 2 5. This means that it is degenerate and is defined by the set of 4 input data point in positions 1,2,5,7 in the input file. I.e.. it is the centre of an empty  circle through the four input data points (0,0), (2,1), 4,0), (2,-4).  The other Voronoi vertices appear once each and are defined respectively by the data points with indices (i.e..  position in the input file)  1 2 3,  1 3 4,  2 5 6,  2 3 6 and 3 4 6. The  Voronoi diagram has 5 rays
    (2, -3/2) + (-2t,-t),    (2,-3/2)+(2t,-t),    (-3/2,2)+(-t,0),    (15/4,2)+(t,0),    (2,15/4)+(0,t)

    For example, the first ray in the output appears:
    V#1 R#1 B#1 h=0 data points  1 5* 7 det=64
    0 -2 -1  * 1 2 -3/2

     This means that the ray (-2t,-t) emanates from the vertex defined by data points 1 5 7, namely (2, -3/2). The asterisk on index 5 indicates that the ray is defined by the data points with indices 5 and 7, namely (0,0) and (2,-4).

      redund: extreme point enumeration and eliminating redundant Inequalities     (new options parallel version from v7.1)

    A convex hull problem that occurs frequently is to enumerate the extreme points (vertices) of a given set of input points. This problem is in fact much simpler than the problem of finding the facets of the given input point set. It can be solved by linear programming.  The dual problem is to remove redundant inequalities from an H-representation. An input  inequality is redundant if it can be deleted without changing the polyhedron.

    Previously this function was handled by the program redund but it has now been subsumed into lrs via the redund/redund_list options described above.
    In addition mplrs now performs redundancy computation in parallel.

    lrs/mplrs with the redund option produce all output at the end of the run.
    lrs will stream output if the verbose option is included after the end line. On each line *nr indicates non-redundant and *re indicates redundant.
    mplrs does not stream redund output because the output needs to be verified in order to avoid multiple deletions due to parallel processing.

    (1) With options  (allows partial redundancy checking for large inputs)

    Add the redund or redund_list option after the end statement of a H- or V-representation.
    Execute % lrs filename  or   %mpirun -np <procs> mplrs filename

    If more than one redund/redund_list option is in the input file the last one read takes priority.

    (2) Without options  (complete redundancy check of all input lines, overidden by redund/redund_list option in input)

    To remove input lines that are not vertices/rays from a V-representation or redundant inequalities from an H-representation use the command:

    For example, using the file mit.ine from the distribution:

              % redund mit.ine
    *redund:lrslib v.7.1 2020.5.23(64bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)

    *Input taken from file mit.ine
    *mulint   : max(|a|,|b|) > 2147483647

    *redund2 found - restarting
    *redund:lrslib v.7.1 2020.5.23(128bit,lrslong.h,overflow checking)

    *Input taken from file mit.ine
    *row 75 was redundant and removed
    *row 77 was redundant and removed
    *row 89 was redundant and removed
    *row 709 was redundant and removed
    708  9  rational
     36  0  0 -2 -2 -1  0  0  0
     0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1
    *Input had 729 rows and 9 columns: 21 row(s) redundant
    *Overflow checking on lrslong arithmetic
    *redund:lrslib v.7.1 2020.5.23(128bit,lrslong.h)

    From this output we first see that redund tried 64 bit arithmetic but detected an overflow and reran with 128 bit arithmetic.
    It found 21 redundant rows which were removed from the file.
    The resulting output file can be used directly with lrs.
    In fact, lrs works best if the input is non-redundant, see the section Redundancy vs Degeneracy.


    linearity  k  i1 i2 i ... ik

    The input file contains k linearities. If the input is a H-representation, the rows i1 i2 i ... ik of the input file are equations. For a V-representation, the rows with these indices should begin with zero in column one, and will be interpreted as lines rather than rays.  Linearities defined on the input vertices of a V-representation are not defined, but the program will accept them and produce some output. Each of the indice ik must be a distinct number between 1 and m. With an  H-representation, linearities are useful for enumeration of vertices on a facet or lower dimensional subspace. For example the file:

    *cube of side 2 centred at the origin
    linearity 2  1 5
    6 4 rational
    1 1 0 0
    1 0 1 0
    1 0 0 1
    1 -1 0 0
    1 0 -1 0
    1 0 0 -1

    causes vertices to be enumerated on the ridge which is the intersection of the two facets

    x1 = -1   and   x2 = 1

    so the output is the pair of vertices

    *Input linearity in row(s) 1 5
    2  4  rational
     1 -1  1  1
     1 -1  1 -1

    Specifying linearities in this way will often produce redundancy , especially if the dimension of the problem is reduced considerably. As a preprocessing step, it is useful to apply to remove any redundancy by redund. In the case of the above problem the output produced by redund is:

    *Input linearity in row(s) 1 5
    *row 2 was redundant and removed
    *row 4 was redundant and removed
    linearity 2 1 2
    4 4 rational
     1  1  0  0
     1  0 -1  0
     1  0  0  1
     1  0  0 -1

    and two redundant halfspaces were removed.

    Redundant columns are closely related to linearities. If we examine the V-representation of cube_ridge above we can see that it is just a line segment in 3 dimensional space. Further,  columns 2 and 3 are multiples of column 1. If lrs is applied to this file, the column redundancies give rise to two linearities, so the output will appear as the H-representation given above: geometrically the intersection of two planes (the linearities) with two half-planes (defining the endpoints of the line segment).

    In general, the representation of the linearity space is not unique, however the one produced by lrs should be the same as that produced by cdd.

    Timing and interrupts

    lrs handles certain signals unless it is compiled with the -DOMIT_SIGNALS option. It is possible to interrupt lrs and get the latest cobasis, which can be used for restarting the program (useful if the machine is going down!)
            signal                     operation
            USR1                         print current cobasis and continue
            TERM                       print current cobasis and terminate
            INT (ctrl-C)                      ditto
            HUP                                      ditto
    lrs also provides timing information, unless compiled with the option -DOMIT_TIMES.

    For example, when hitting CTL-C when running

    %lrs mit.ine

    the following is obtained:

     1  24  48  0  0  0  0  64  0
     1  24  48  0  0  0  0  72  0

    lrs_lib: checkpointing:
    lrs_lib: State #0: (LRS globals)
    restart 33 0 12542 8 634 640 641 678 704 725 726 729
    integervertices 14
    lrs_lib: checkpoint finished
    4.476u 0.000s 0:04.49 99.5%     0+0k 0+0io 5657pf+0w

    The restart and integervertices lines can be used to restart by adding them to the end of the mit.ine file:

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
    restart 33 0 12542 8 634 640 641 678 704 725 726 729
    integervertices 14


    % lrs mit.ine

    *lrs:lrslib v.7.0 2018.6.14(64bit,lrslong.h,hybrid arithmetic)
    *Input taken from  mit.ine
    *restart V#33 R#0 B#12542 h=8 facets 634 640 641 678 704 725 726 729
    *lrs:overflow possible: restarting with 128 bit arithmetic

     1  16  16  8  2  1  4  32  8
     1  16  80/3  16/3  0  0  0  64/3  0
     1  21  18  9/2  3/2  0  0  24  6

    will complete the full run.

    hvref/xref   Cross reference listing between V- and H-representations               (new in v7.1)

    This standalone hvref/xref makes a cross reference list between H and V representations.
    The first step is to create a matching pair of representations using lrs/mplrs.
    (The same steps can be used starting with a V-rep *.ext file)

    First it is recommended to remove any redundancies from the input file using redund.

    1. Add  printcobasis and incidence options to cube.ine

    % lrs cube.ine cube.ext        or   %mpirun -np <procs> mplrs cube.ext
    % xref cube.ext

    2. Edit the output file  cube.ext.x to insert a second line that contains two integers

    rows maxindex

    where rows >= # output lines in cube.ext.x
          maxindex >= # input lines in cube.ine

    or just use 0 0 and run as below, the output will tell you which values to use

    % hvref cube.ext.x

    Error messages and troubleshooting

    The most common error occurs from an incorrect input file specification, please check the section File Formats carefully. In particular, lrs does not check the type or number of input coefficients specified.  After the line
    m n rational
    you must specify exactly m*n rational or integer coefficients. They are read  in free format , but normally each input facet or vertex/ray is begun on a new line.  See note for cdd users.

    The following error messages are produced by lrs . They are  arranged in alphabetic order.

    Cannot find linearity in the basis

    The linearity option was specified but a basis cannot be created. Check the linearity indices are all less than n-1 and are disitinct.

    Data type must be integer of rational

    Digits must be at most 2295  Change MAX_DIGITS and recompile     (This message does not appear if the default gmp arithmetic package is used) Invalid input: check you have entered enough data!
    Usually means that end of file was reached before enough input data was read.

    Invalid Co-basis - does not have correct rank
    Maximize/minimize only valid for H-representation No begin line No data in file No feasible solution Starting cobasis indices must be distinct and in range 1 .. m Trying to restart from infeasible dictionary

    Hints and comments

    H- vs V- representation

     lrs is programmed to manipulate H-representations directly. A file presented as a V-representation is processed by lifting it to a cone in one higher dimension, which is treated internally as a H-representation. If the input file is a polytope which contains the origin, then the user has two options. Submit it as a V-representation and have it processed as just described, or submit it as a H-representation, and interpret the output as a list of facet inequalities rather than "vertices". Since this will not be lifted, it will be processed in a different way by lrs. Sometimes a degenerate V-representation may run more quickly as a H-representation, and sometimes more slowly. To decide which representation to use for a large problem, the user can run the estimates option and choose the representation with fewest estimated bases.

    Redundancy vs Degeneracy

    For an H-representation, an input is redundant if some inequality can be deleted without changing the polyhedron. It is degenerate if (in d dimensions) at least one vertex lies on d+1 or more facets.  Similarly in a V-representation an input is redundant if some input point is not a vertex of the convex hull.  It is degenerate if some facet contains d+1 or more input points. The options   printcobasis and incidence give degeneracy information. Degeneracy causes pivot  or triangulation based methods such as lrs to  run slowly. Redundancy is one cause of degeneracy, but it can be avoided by pre-processing the input files. See section redund: extreme Point Enumeration and Redundant Inequalities for instructions on how to do this. This pre-processing is unnecessary if it is known that the input is non-redundant.

    Even with redundant input removed a polyhedron may be highly degenerate. In distribution directory ine/metric there are many highly degenerate combinatorial polytopes. These are difficult problems for all vertex enumeration/convex hull programs that use pivoting, such as lrs.  For example, the file cp6.ine is a polytope with 368 facets in  16 dimensions. It has 32 vertices, but computing these required the evaluation of 4,844,923,002 bases!(see Avis-Jordan, 2017)

    Memory considerations

    The strong point of lrs is that it does not save the output produced, so in theory it cannot run out of memory.  With cache size one all memory is allocated at the beginning, so if lrs starts running it will not run out of memory. It is possible however that the number of digits required to do the calculations exceeds the amount specified on the digits option, or the default. In practice, this problem will also arise early in the computation. In any case, a message is printed and the calculation can be restarted. In order to improve performance, some dictionaries should be cached. The default of 10 can be overridden by the cacheoption. If the dictionary is in the cache it does not need to be recomputed when backtracking, reducing  processing time by about 40%. Since the cache is allocated dynamically, a cache size that is too large can potentially use up large ammounts of machine memory.

    Geometric Rays

    A minimum V-representation of a polyhedron is a minimum set of vertices and rays such that each point in the polyhedron can be expressed as a convex combination of vertices plus a non-negative combination of rays. For the cube, if we delete the inequality
    x3 <= 1, i.e.. the line 1 0 0 -1 from file cube.ine, we get the output:
    ***** 4 rational
    1 1 1 -1
    0 0 0 1
    1 -1 1 -1
    1 1 -1 -1
    1 -1 -1 -1

    indicating the polyhedron is the convex combination of 4 vertices and 1 ray. With the geometric option, we get the output:
    ***** 4 rational
    1 1 1 -1
    0 0 0 1  * 1 1 1 -1
    1 -1 1 -1
    0 0 0 1  * 1 -1 1 -1
    1 1 -1 -1
    0 0 0 1  * 1 1 -1 -1
    1 -1 -1 -1
    0 0 0 1  * 1 -1 -1 -1

    This indicates that geometrically, the polyhedron has 4 parallel extreme rays (0,0,t) , one incident to each vertex. With the geometric option, all rays will be printed. Without the option, lrs tries to print each ray once, but in some cases duplicates will remain, see  subsection Output Duplication.

    Output Duplication

    For degenerate inputs, pivot based methods for vertex/ray enumeration such as lrs may generate the same output ray many times. An output is only printed when it occurs with a lexicographically minimum basis. This removes all duplicate vertices, but rays may still be output more than once. This is due to the fact that duplicate geometric rays cannot always be detected without storing the output. Since V-representations are automatically lifted to a higher dimension, this will not happen for facet enumeration. Unless the allbases option is specified, lrs makes checks in order to remove duplicates.   A warning message is produced when duplicates may occur in the output. They can be removed using the program buffer.c. Two important types of input never produce duplicate output: polytopes (i.e. bounded polyhedra) and cones (i.e. polyhedra where the origin is the only vertex).

    Acknowledgements and References

    I would like to thank many people for helping with this implementation project. Komei Fukuda encouraged me from the start, collaborated in designing the file formats, and provided many suggestions for improving the code. Debugging would have been almost impossible without the use of his program cdd as a benchmark. David Bremner implemented memory allocation, cacheing and signals. Ambros Marzetta demonstrated the importance of cacheing and lrslong is based on his earlier implementation of this as prs_single.  Jerry Quinn coded the integer divide routine. Bug reports were provided by many users, for which I thank them. In particular Gerardo Garbulsky's extensive use of earlier versions suggested many refinements and Andreas Enge helped debug the volume computation. Tallman Nkgau contributed fourier.

    D. Avis, lrs: A Revised Implementation of the Reverse Search Vertex Enumeration Algorithm, http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/Av98a.ps
       In: Polytopes - Combinatorics and Computation, Ed. G. Kalai and G. Ziegler, Birkhauser-Verlag (2000) 177-198.

    D. Avis, "Computational Experience with the Reverse Search Vertex Enumeration Algorithm," Optimization Methods and Software, (1998 (to appear)). http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/Av98b.ps

    D. Avis, D. Bremner, and R. Seidel, "How Good are Convex Hull Algorithms?," Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications, Vol 7,pp.265-301(1997). http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/ABS96a.ps

    D. Avis and L. Devroye, "Estimating the Number of Vertices of a Polyhedron," pp. 179-190 in Snapshots of Computational and Discrete Geometry, ed. D. Avis and P. Bose, School of Computer Science, McGill University (1994). http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/AD94a.ps
      In: Information Processing Letters, (2000) V. 73, pp. 137-143.

    D. Avis and K. Fukuda, "A Pivoting Algorithm for Convex Hulls and Vertex Enumeration of Arrangements and Polyhedra," Discrete and Computational Geometry, Vol. 8, pp. 295-313 (1992).  http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/AF92b.ps

    D. Avis, K. Fukuda and S. Picozzi, "On Canonical Representations of Convex Polyhedra", Mathematical Software,  ICMS 2002, Ed. A. Cohen, X-S Gao, N. Takayama, World Scientific, pp.350-360 (2002)   http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~avis/doc/avis/AFP02a.ps

    D. Avis, G. Rosenberg, R. Savani, B. von Stengel, "Enumeration of Nash Equilibria for Two-Player Games", Economic Theory 42(2009) 9-37  pdf

    D. Bremner, K. Fukuda and A. Marzetta, Primal-Dual Methods for Vertex and Facet Enumeration, 13th ACM  Symposium on Computational Geometry SCG 1997, 49-56.   http://www.cs.unb.ca/profs/bremner/pd/